According to the latest statistics from the National Alliance on Mental Illness, 43.8 million Americans, or 18.5% of the national population, experience mental illness every year. Mental illness is a broad term defined by the Mayo Clinic as any disorder that affects one’s mood, thinking, or behavior. When mental illness influences family life, work, education, and other aspects day-to-day life, the condition is known as a psychiatric disability.
43.8 million Americans, or 18.5% of the national population, experience mental illness every year.
A recent report from Johns Hopkins University notes that psychiatric disabilities are not caused by singular life events; rather, they are persistent conditions that may have a significant, lifelong impact. Those diagnosed with a psychiatric disability may mitigate the effects of their condition with medication and/or ongoing psychotherapy. Even with treatment though, many psychiatric disabilities will persist in some form.
College students with psychiatric disabilities face unique educational challenges. Dedicated mental health counselors and disability coordinators are available on most campuses, and students can typically seek medical attention. Many students, however, do not know how to get help for their problems. To help students get the assistance they need, we have examined instructional strategies, course accommodations, and other campus services designed to serve this population. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive resource for college-bound high school seniors and currently enrolled postsecondary students who struggle with mental illness.
Types of Psychiatric Disability
First, let’s explore some of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disabilities. This list is by no means exhaustive; there are more than 200 classified types of mental illness, and all of them can evolve into a psychiatric disability.
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) defines depression as a serious mood disorder that impacts the way one processes thoughts, emotions, and daily activities (such as sleeping or eating).
Depression comes in many forms. Persistent depressive disorder, or dysthymia, is a depressed state that lasts two years or longer. Bipolar disorder is characterized by radical mood swings between depression and manic states. Psychotic depression occurs when depressed feelings are accompanied by delusions, hallucinations, or other forms of psychosis. Women who are pregnant or have recently given birth may be affected by perinatal depression, while seasonal affective disorder occurs periodically throughout the year.
COMMON SYMPTOMS OF DEPRESSION
- Prolonged sadness, anxiousness, and/or irritability
- Low energy or fatigue
- Insomnia or other sleep-related issues
- Changes in appetite
- Suicidal thoughts
- Physical problems, such as headaches or muscle stiffness
- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
ADHD is a common childhood condition that also affects adults; roughly 6.4 million Americans have been diagnosed. People with ADHD usually display chronic inattentiveness, hyperactivity, impulsiveness, or any combination of these behaviors. People with ADHD often struggle to focus on tasks or conversations. They may also regularly feel disorganized or forgetful. In the past, attention deficit disorder (ADD) was used to describe this condition; contemporary mental health experts consider the term obsolete.
- Anxiety Disorders
According to the NIMH, an anxiety disorder is characterized by levels of stress that significantly impact everyday life. Anxiety sufferers often ebb and flow between tense, high-strung moods and periods of fatigue. Other symptoms include persistent irritability, sleep problems, and physical pain. NIMH notes that most people have one of three common anxiety disorders.
Generalized anxiety disorder is defined by prolonged periods of unwarranted stress and worry. People with panic disorder experience sudden bursts of fear known as panic attacks that are supplemented with physical symptoms like heart palpitations, trembling, and dizziness. Finally, people with social anxiety disorder struggle with feelings of stress and insecurity in social situations, even casual ones like brief conversations and friendly group outings.
- Drug Abuse/Addiction
Addiction is defined as a “chronic, relapsing brain disease that causes compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences to the addicted individual and to those around them.” Most mental health experts agree that addiction has three underlying causes: biology and family history, environment, and development; addicts may be influenced by one or more of these factors. Addicts commonly seek certain drugs or substances, such as alcohol, cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine. Nicotine, the substance found in tobacco products, is also highly addictive. Additionally, people may become addicted to sex, gambling, or other activities that can be harmful in large doses.
There are many societal misconceptions regarding substance abuse. A report by the National Institute of Drug Abuse notes that “it is often mistakenly assumed that drug abusers lack moral principles or willpower and that they could stop using drugs simply by choosing to change their behavior. In reality, drug addiction is a complex disease, and quitting takes more than good intentions or a strong will.” Psychotherapy may help addicts control their compulsive urges, but treating the condition with extended rehabilitation and therapy is generally more effective.
- Eating Disorders
Much like addiction, eating disorders are commonly and incorrectly perceived as lifestyle choices. However, eating disorders generally begin as unhealthy obsessions about nutrition or weight that evolve into harmful, too-often fatal patterns of dietary behavior. Three conditions are particularly common. People with anorexia nervosa often see themselves as overweight and unattractive; consequently, they dangerously restrict their daily caloric intake and experience health effects related to starvation and an incomplete diet. Bulimia nervosa is characterized by two common behaviors: chronic overeating, followed by a period of “purging” through vomiting or diuretic ingestion, fasting, or excessive levels of physical exercise. Binge-eating disorder is a separate condition defined by levels of chronic overeating comparable to bulimia without the purging, fasting, or excessive exercise phase.
- Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
The NIMH’s official definition of OCD notes it is a prolonged condition with two behaviors: obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors. Individuals with OCD are driven to repeat these thoughts and behaviors frequently, sometimes dozens of times per day. Specific symptoms include an irrational fear of germs, unwanted thoughts, excessive counting, and physical spasms. OCD affects a person’s everyday life, and the lives of their family members, coworkers, and acquaintances. People suffering from OCD may lose their job or face a degree of social alienation.
- Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
According to the NIMH, ASD is a wide-reaching condition characterized by communicative struggles, social awkwardness, and repetitive or obsessive behaviors. Some people with ASD are barely affected, while others have multiple noticeable symptoms. Historically, the terms “autism” and “Asperger’s syndrome” were used to describe two different conditions; today the American Psychiatric Association considers these to be part of the same behavior spectrum.
Disability in Colleges
Some psychiatric disabilities are more common than others among postsecondary students. A 2012 NAMI survey titled “College Students Speak” noted that:
- 27% of all respondents (male and female) said they lived with depression
- 24% said they lived with bipolar disorder
- 12% said they lived with “other conditions”; these include dysthymia, eating disorders, OCD and ASD
- 11% said they lived with anxiety
- 5% said they lived with ADHD
- 1% said they lived with substance abuse
In an article for Psychology Today, Gregg Henriques, Ph.D., notes that an increasing number of college students experience mental illness. He cites data from an NAMI survey, which found that half of all respondents did not receive any mental health education or evaluations prior to enrolling in college.
30% (of college students) struggled with schoolwork due to a mental illness, while one in four experienced suicidal thoughts, and one in seven engaged in reckless behavior.
Roughly 30% struggled with schoolwork due to a mental illness, while one in four experienced suicidal thoughts, and one in seven engaged in reckless behavior. However, only 7% of surveyed parents believed their child was living with a mental health issue. An additional survey by the Association of University and College Counseling Center Directors found that 95% of the respondents believed the number of students with a mental illness and/or psychiatric disability was “a growing concern” at colleges. Henriques further noted that the suicide rate among 15 to 24 year olds has tripled since the 1950s.
Transitioning to College & Unique Challenges
Most college students struggle with the transition to some extent, but those living with a psychiatric disability face their own set of challenges and obstacles. Briana Boyington of U.S. News & World Report emphasizes the importance of selecting a college or university that offers all necessary services and accommodations. A student with OCD has different needs than one with ASD, and students should research whether their target schools have the services they need.
Boyington also highlights the need for supportive professors. Students who have been diagnosed with a psychiatric disability should meet with their current therapist or counselor to create a sustainable treatment plan. On-campus counseling and mental health services are also in place at most schools in order to help undiagnosed students.
How Schools Accommodate Students with Psychiatric Disabilities
Most academic experts agree that Universal Design of Learning (UDL) is key for integrating students with psychiatric disabilities into college classrooms. UDL seeks to address and modify course curricula that excludes any student, particularly those with a disability affecting their ability to learn and/or receive instruction in a class setting.
In order to create universally accessible courses, colleges must take the following steps to ensure their classes and campuses are completely inclusive:
- Allow students with special needs to complete coursework, give presentations, and take exams using alternative formats.
- Work with students with specific needs to gain access to adaptive software and technology that helps them learn effectively.
- Appoint individuals who can assist these students as note-takers, readers, scribes, or other essential roles.
- Offer students with special needs additional time for assignments and tests, as well as getting to class.
- Guide students with disabilities to specialized counselors, resource centers, and other on-campus services dedicated to assisting these individuals.
Colleges can further accommodate students with psychiatric disabilities by providing resources to help all students learn without distraction. Common assistive technologies include:
- Mp3 and CD Players
Devices that play instrumental music or natural sounds can be helpful for students with social anxiety disorder or other conditions that cause them to struggle in large classroom settings. Mp3 and CD players can also serve as effective study aids for students with ADHD and other conditions that make focusing difficult.
- Electronic Planners
Students who struggle with organizational anxiety usually benefit from some sort of reminder system. Daily planner notebooks are helpful, and electronic or digital devices offer added convenience and portability. Students can use them to maintain a class schedule, organize assignments, and plan appointments with an easy-to-use interface.
- Digital Recorders
Students who have trouble focusing in class can use a digital recorder to capture lectures, notes, and course information. These devices are usually pocket-sized and capable of recording hours of material.
A “soother” is defined as any device that calms individuals prone to anxiety, stress, and other elevated moods. These may include Mp3 or CD players that transmit mellow music or sounds, but a soother could be something as simple as a small object or keepsake that provides emotional relief.
- Service Animals
Service animals (usually dogs) help students with psychiatric disabilities cope with new stimuli. These animals have been specifically trained to provide emotional support to people and to intervene when their owners are experiencing unhealthy levels of anxiety or psychotic episodes. Most college campuses allow service animals in classrooms.
Common Assistive Apps
Nicknamed SAM, this highly rated app monitors anxious thoughts and behaviors in order to create sustainable long-term management plans.
This app helps people with eating disorders by allowing them to create healthy meal plans, monitor their urges to binge, and create long-term management systems.
Ideal for people with ADHD and other conditions that affect focus, this app tracks the user’s daily activities and offers strategies for balancing work, school, and leisure.
This app tracks daily emotions using graphs, calendars, and other interactive displays to help students prone to depression, anxiety, and other mood-related disorders.
This app features animated displays to discuss proper responses and procedures for panic attacks and other sudden bouts of anxiety.
Summary & Wellness Strategies
The most important thing for students with psychiatric disabilities to remember is that they are not alone. Many students have strong support systems of friends and family members back home, though not all are so fortunate. Thankfully, college campuses are required by federal law to offer counseling and therapy services to anyone suffering from a mental illness. These resources are especially crucial for students who attend school far from their hometown.
Faculty members also play a crucial role in the college experience of students with psychiatric disabilities. If students are comfortable discussing their condition, they should meet with each professor for a one-on-one consultation at the outset of each semester or quarter. They can explore strategies for attending class, completing assignments, sitting for exams, and performing other required tasks within the bounds of the student’s psychiatric disability. Students should discuss any accommodations or assistive technologies they may need over the course of the term during these meetings.
Students living with a psychiatric disability should also ensure they are only participating in social activities that will not trigger the negative effects of their mental illness. Living situations are key: students should make sure they live in a comfortable setting with minimal stress. For some, that means living alone instead of in a dorm; others may prefer to have people around at all times. Students with prescriptions should also avoid excessive drinking and drug use, as these substances can counteract the therapeutic effects of their medication and, in some cases, can lead to a dangerous overdose.
- AAHD Frederick J. Krause Scholarship on Health and Disability
This one-time $1,000 award is available to college students who are currently enrolled in an accredited degree program. Applicants must provide a note from their physician or therapist to prove they have a disability; two letters of recommendation, college transcripts, and a few personal statements are also required.
- Business Plan Scholarship from Fit Small Business
Any undergraduate or graduate-level student with a physical or psychiatric disability is eligible for this one-time $1,000 scholarship. Applicants must submit a 500-1,000 word essay about their experience writing business plans.
- Google Lime Scholarship
This one-time $10,000 award is reserved for students with disabilities who are currently pursuing a degree in computer science. Candidates must submit three different essays about their passion for computer science and their career goals.
- Learning Disabilities Association of Iowa Scholarship
This one-time $1,000 prize is awarded to three recipients per year. Candidates must have a learning disability, be members or children of members of the LDA-IA and be enrolled or plan to enroll in an accredited two-year, four-year, or vocational training program.
- Margaret Howard Hamilton Scholarship
Offered through the Daughters of the American Revolution, this annual award provides $1,000 for up to four years of academic study. Only students with recognized learning disabilities are eligible.
- Michael Yasick ADHD Scholarship
This one-time $2,000 prize is awarded to as many as 55 recipients every year. Applicants must show proof of ADHD. Winners also receive one-year of complimentary ADHD counseling.
- National Center for Learning Disabilities
Students with ADHD, ASD, and other learning disabilities may qualify for four different awards offered through the NCLD. The amounts range from one-time, $2,500 scholarships to recurring awards of up to $10,000 over the course of a four-year program.
- NIMH Scholarship
Winners of the NIMH’s annual, recurring scholarship will receive $20,000 per academic year for up to four years of postsecondary study. Recipients must attend the institute’s 10-week summer workshop and serve at least one year at the NIMH laboratory after graduation.
- Organization for Autism Research Scholarship
The $3,000 OAR award is presented to applicants who have been diagnosed with ASD. Candidates must be enrolled full-time at an accredited school to be considered.
- RISE Scholarship Foundation
This one-time scholarship awards $2,500 to recipients who have been diagnosed with ASD or other learning disabilities that may or may not be linked to mental health. Only college-bound high school seniors are eligible.
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH): The leading federal agency in the field of mental health research, NIMH is one of 27 branches of the National Institutes of Health. The NIMH website is a compendium of news, published reports, academic journals, data tables, and other academic resources.
National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI): Founded in 1979, NAMI is the nation’s largest grassroots organization in the country that supports people living with mental illness. NAMI maintains a toll-free hotline to provide advice and medical referrals. Representatives from the organization also work closely with lawmakers nationwide to ensure fair and equal protection for people with mental health issues.
Treatment Advocacy Center (TAC): This nonprofit organization has worked to promote mental health treatment and fight social stigma related to mentally ill individuals for nearly 20 years. TAC also collaborates with researchers to publish the latest developments in medication and treatment for mental illnesses.
MentalHealth.gov: This website maintained by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services maintains an up-to-date listing of toll-free hotlines accessible to people living with mental illness.
Shining a Light on Mental Illness: an Invisible Disability: This blog post from the World Bank explores various issues faced by people living with mental illness. Links to other related blogs and websites are included.