Careers for Economics Majors

Economists study the allocation of resources — including money, food, education, and healthcare — across communities, cultures, and countries around the world. They use mountains of data to evaluate issues and help leaders in government and business understand trends and prepare for changes. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) projects 6% growth in the field through 2026 as demand increases for professionals who understand complex global economic issues. Many entry-level economics jobs may require a master’s degree. Applicants should demonstrate their analytical abilities and communication skills.

Studying economics also prepares students for careers outside the academic discipline, such as finance and business. It’s important to explore your career options early on so that you can seek schools with dual-degree options, or fast-tracked master’s programs that can help graduates enter the workforce as soon as possible. Research which programs offer specializations, internships, and research opportunities. This guide offers in-depth information on the different careers in economics and their salaries, plus how to prepare for them.

Skills Gained in an Economics Program

Many individuals pursue economics degrees because they question why the world works the way it does. Their curiosity combines with a methodical, organized mindset to research and dig through data to reach their conclusions. Economics degrees prepare graduates for their careers through hands-on learning in statistical analysis, research papers, and presentations. University programs with internship or cooperative learning opportunities allow students to further develop the core economics skills they need to begin successful careers in economics.

Analytical Skills

Economists evaluate data from a variety of sources to identify patterns and make conclusions about how economic policies impact businesses, personal budgets, and the overall economy. Analytical skills allow economists to investigate questions from multiple angles to spot trends, understand how variables impact those trends, and accurately communicate those insights to others.

Critical Thinking Skills

Economists must evaluate their data sources, and choose the most relevant data points to analyze. This requires sound judgment and logical thinking, plus the ability to infer information that may be missing and identify any potential bias a data source may have.

Speaking Skills

Economists must take their carefully evaluated data and analysis and share it with business leaders or policymakers. Many people struggle with public speaking, but overcoming nervousness and presenting data in an engaging manner helps ensure leaders can take action on the information exhibited. The ability to use visual aids, such as PowerPoint slides, and organize information logically builds speaking skills.

Writing Skills

Economists often have to translate vast amounts of data into written reports. These reports must concisely summarize information, highlight relevant trends, and provide insight for future action. Careful word choice ensures readability and clarity. Types of writing common to economist professions include memos, reports, and academic journal articles. Writers must identify their audience before starting their project to make sure they include the necessary information and choose the appropriate layout, design, and tone.

Studying economics prepares you to enter any field that values analytical and critical thinking skills. Economic analysis often influences policy decisions, meaning economists can impact their world and help address issues ranging from homelessness and hunger to trade disparity and energy conservation. The BLS reports 22% of economists work in the federal government, but careers aren’t limited to this industry. Economics majors can also go into research and development, consulting services, and finance and insurance. Many economists work in office environments with limited required business travel, and many companies offer telecommuting opportunities.

Law schools, which expect extensive research skills combined with analytical ability, report that economics majors score above-average on entrance exams. Combining economics with political science may prepare graduates for work as political scientists or lobbyists for nonprofit or corporate entities. Marketing studies prepare graduates for the growing field of market research analysis. Urban and regional planners use economics principles along with an understanding of civil engineering to help communities prepare for or keep up with growth. An understanding of core business principles also makes economics majors attractive hires in banking or stock trading.

How Much Do Economics Majors Make?

Overall, economists report a median salary of $102,490 per year. The economics salary you can expect, however, varies across industries. Many employers also factor in the specific duties of a job and any supervisory elements or fiscal responsibility, raising salaries for employees who take on these additional challenges. Salaries are also determined by location, prior work experience, and level of education. Georgetown University’s Center on Education and the Workforce found economics students with only a bachelor’s degree earn a median salary of $75,000, while those with a graduate degree can expect a median salary of $100,000.

Degree

Bachelor's Degree

$75,000
Degree

Master's Degree

$100,000
Degree

Graduate Degree Wage Program

$25,000 (33%)

Sacha Nitsetska Creator, Mavenli

Sacha Nitsetska has an economics degree from City University. Following an internship in a boutique private equity firm, Nitsetska joined JPMorgan in its leveraged finance team, and later switched to industrials M&A (mergers and acquisitions). After six years in finance, she decided to leave the bank to create Mavenli.com, and recently launched a free app that allows anyone, anywhere to find a mentor. Nitsetska is currently working with blue-chip clients in the finance, legal, and tech industries to provide high-performance teams in mission critical environments with on-demand mentorship from internal and external experts. She is passionate about helping graduates and entrepreneurs find their footing, and she herself can be found on the Mavenli app, where she mentors finance applicants and start-up founders.

Why did you decide to pursue a career in economics?

Honestly, I initially chose economics because I didn’t have a clue about what I wanted to do for a career, and economics seemed to be a good combination of analytical thinking and the potential to use people skills at some point in the future.

What are the most essential skills you gained in your economics program?

Numerical skills, teamwork and some presentation building skills, but most importantly the ability to analyze and synthesize large amounts of data and present it in a structured and coherent way. Project management is another big one that I’m using to this day in everything I do.

What was the job search like after graduating?

It wasn’t easy at first because I chose to go into M&A and wanted to get into a top-tier bulge bracket investment bank, which is incredibly competitive and the applications are very long and quite complicated. Thankfully I managed to find a mentor who helped me get an internship in private equity, which combined with a relevant degree allowed me to get into JPMorgan with relative ease.

What advice would you give undergraduate students who are considering a graduate degree in economics? Is it worth it?

Like all things, you get out of it what you put in. Personally, I think economics is a great study to undertake because it leads to a flexible career path. You can go into banking with as much ease as you could go into teaching or sales or any number of things. Employers really like graduates who have proven numerical skills, project management, teamwork and ability to think strategically and be commercially minded. Economics degrees allow you to demonstrate all these skills to future employers, so you can essentially go into almost any field starting from that. If, like me, you end up deciding that you want to build your own company, Economics is a great place to start since you already have a decent background in business and a commercial mindset, not to mention a network of people who are probably doing things related to finance and can help act as angel investors which has been my case.

What additional advice would you give to those considering a degree in economics?

My advice is based on things I wish I had known earlier on in my course. First, find a mentor, or ideally about three to five mentors — one from each field you are interested in. The time will pass faster than you think, and before you know it you will be in the final exam season and still have no idea where you want to apply for your first position. Start talking to people in interesting careers early, and by the time you’re graduating, not only will you have a clear idea of what you want to do, but you will have the contacts who will be able to get you a job with ease (referrals are always the easiest way in). You can use the Mavenli app to find the right mentor for you for free, or you can always contact your alumni resources.

Also, apply for internships and work experience very early on. While you can get an “averageā€ job very quickly, elite organizations often want to see excellent academic qualifications as well as relevant work experience before they will consider inviting you for an interview.

Minimum Degree Requirements

Many careers related to economics require completion of at least a bachelor’s degree, but becoming an economist or professor may require a master’s degree or higher. Undergraduate degrees include 120 credit hours, with a combination of core general education courses and in-depth study of economic theory and principles. In these courses, you begin to develop the analytical and problem-solving abilities prized in numerous careers. These skills form the foundation of future research in graduate school or the workforce. Many graduates find work in banking industries or insurance fields, forecasting financial markets and calculating risk for underwriting health or casualty policies. Economics degrees provide a versatile foundation for continued education.

Organizations looking to fill leadership positions or research-intensive roles seek individuals with advanced study and experience. You wouldn’t have to earn a master’s degree in economics, either, unless it specifically related to the career you have chosen. The analytical and critical thinking skills built during your undergraduate education prove invaluable in fields of finance, business, or accountancy. Some professional licenses, such as the certified public accountant, require additional knowledge beyond a bachelor’s degree. Consider specialized graduate tracks, as well, such as information systems or public policy.

How Long Does It Take to Earn an Economics Degree?

Full-time students can expect to spend about four years working toward their undergraduate degree. Add another two to three years to earn your master’s degree. Not every student can devote themselves to full-time study, however. Part-time students can expect to spend more time earning the required 120 credit hours for an undergraduate degree, and the additional 60 credits for a master’s degree. Part-time students typically complete six to nine credits each semester. Check with your school for opportunities to transfer credits you may have earned in the past, or options to receive credit for any professional training you’ve completed. These options reduce both the time it will take for you to graduate and your overall education expenses.

Many online schools offer opportunities for part-time students to earn more credits each year. Accelerated classes allow students to complete course credits in a matter of weeks, rather than on the traditional semester schedule. Online students can focus on one or two classes each term, or potentially complete additional courses each year. Online asynchronous programs make it easier for students to juggle their responsibilities, as well. Unlike scheduled, or synchronous, classes, students log in to the online learning platform whenever their schedule allows to participate in online discussions and assignments, watch recorded videos, and complete reading assignments. Also, consider the differences between cohort and individual pace programs. In a cohort, a group of students moves through the curriculum together. While cohorts allow students to build strong relationships, some students may want to progress through their work more quickly, or need to take courses in a different order.

Concentrations Available for Economics Majors

Behavioral Economics

This field combines the data analysis of economics with principles of psychology. It delves into the reasons why people or organizations behave in a way that may seem counterintuitive to their best interests, and explores why people make these errors how they could make better choices.

Data Analytics

Work with large sets of data to inform policy and identify trends in various industries. Data analysts may find work in government or banking. Many specialize in a specific economic sector, such as agriculture or manufacturing. Individuals with an interest in healthcare may prefer to work in epidemiology to research disease spread, or forensic accounting to identify evidence for criminal prosecution.

Environmental Economics

Many people associate economics with money, but the study’s most basic element is the allocation of scarce resources. Environmental economics studies how individuals and nations allocate natural resources, and helps inform environmental regulatory policy. Combining environmental science with economic principles, environmental economists may review the benefits and costs of implementing the Clean Air Act, or how economic incentives drive industries to adopt more energy-efficient technology, or move to renewable resources.

Financial Economics

Financial economics studies monetary activities. Market uncertainty plays a major role in this discipline as economics look at factors surrounding financial risk and reward. The field often requires forecasting future economic conditions, like inflation or interest rates, and economic diversification to account for potential risks in investments.

Healthcare Policy

This subspecialty evaluates healthcare delivery, payment methods, and processes to help decision-makers improve access to higher quality care at lower costs. This field requires expertise in biostatistics, which uses data to help determine survival rates for specific diseases, the effectiveness of new drugs, and possible causes of a disease.

International Economics

Trade takes place across international borders. This area of economics studies trade policy, resource allocation, and exchange rates among countries. These economists predict how tariffs may impact certain countries’ economies, or how changing exchange rates may affect demand for an imported product.

Labor Economics

This field evaluates the relationships between workers and employers. It considers how businesses set wages, and factors that may discourage members of a particular demographic from joining the labor force. It also delves into employee satisfaction and engagement, and how issues such as immigration policy could impact different economic sectors.

Macroeconomics

Macroeconomics focuses on “big picture” questions to explain how an economy works as a whole. It looks at cause and effect of short-term business cycles on the overall economy, plus what impacts long-term economic growth. Data on topics such as the nation’s gross domestic product (GDP) or unemployment rate aid policymakers in finding solutions.

Microeconomics

Microeconomics breaks down the data found in macroeconomics to a subgroup level. It’s the study of how individual consumers make decisions, and how their decisions impact both the individual and the economy. Subgroups may include consumers in a specific geographic area, business owners, or households.

Public Policy

Many countries establish regulations and policies that impact their economy and allocation of resources among their citizens. Economists help evaluate the impact of those policies on the distribution of scarce resources, such as money, food, and healthcare. Economists specializing in this area may evaluate tax reform, welfare and social support programs, unemployment, health insurance, or government debt.

Transportation Economics

This specialty combines economics and transportation engineering to explore issues such as motor vehicle crashes, mass transit projects, and product logistics. The field requires an understanding of civil engineering principles and data analytics to develop forecasting for traffic congestion, future road construction, and possible regulations for safety and economic activity.

Economics degrees provide graduates with a variety of employment options across multiple sectors. With so many career options in the field of economics, students must consider their interests and the time they plan to invest in their education. A bachelor’s degree often meets entry-level requirements of lucrative fields such as accounting, market research, or actuarial science — all growing fields, according to the BLS — and many government research and policy jobs. The study of economics also provides research opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students — an essential part of your education, if you plan to enter an academic field. The curriculum focuses heavily on mathematics and statistics, along with macro- and microeconomics theory. Students should also be comfortable working with a variety of software programs that make it easier for economists to manage their data and visual trends.

Associate Degree in Economics

An associate degree in economics or finance can be the first step toward your career goals, but it will not be the final step. These entry-level jobs provide experience working with numbers and data, but don’t offer much room for advancement without at least a bachelor’s degree. The two-year associate degree typically requires 60 credit hours, and curriculum covers general education requirements — such as English and history — while also introducing students to the principles of economics. Students planning to earn an associate degree in economics will find they have a good start on their bachelor’s degree when they decide to return to college.

Bookkeeper

Bookkeepers track financial transactions for an organization, ensuring proper documentation of income and expenses. Often employed in the business office of a company or organization, bookkeepers work in office environments, utilizing various computer accounting programs. Bookkeepers may work full or part time, depending on business needs.

Salary: $34,486

Accounting Clerk

Accounting clerks track all financial statements for a business or organization, including accounts payable and accounts receivable ledgers. These employees may contact customers regarding past-due accounts, or help prepare company financial statements, working with auditors. Most work in office environments with minimal travel requirements. Accounting clerks work with bookkeeping software and are able to perform simple mathematical calculations.

Salary: $31,990

Administrative Assistant

A company may assign an administrative assistant to a particular department, or to work exclusively with one individual. Specific tasks vary by assignment, but may include customer correspondence, calendar management, and tracking monthly expenditures. Administrative assistants need strong communication skills and proficiency in word processing and spreadsheet software.

Salary: $31,304

Brokerage Clerk

Working closely with investment brokers, clerks write orders to stock purchases and sales and confirm those transactions take place. They also keep meticulous documentation of daily operations. Clerks may review orders for accuracy or be responsible for data entry and filing systems. The position rarely requires overtime and has minimal physical demands.

Salary: $31,636

Insurance Sales Agent

Insurance sales agents communicate with clients about their insurance products, helping them make complex coverage decisions. Their work primarily takes place in an office setting, but agents may need to travel to meet with clients and evaluate a property, such as for a homeowners policy. Agents must communicate effectively with clients to learn about their individual needs and to identify sales opportunities.

Salary: $30,168

Bachelor’s Degree in Economics

The careers below offer a sampling of the jobs economics majors may find after completing their bachelor’s degree. Many of the required advanced economics or finance courses develop analytical and critical thinking skills sought by employers. Most bachelor’s degrees require students to complete 120 credit hours. Courses may include global economics and advanced statistical methods. Electives allow students to specialize in areas such as healthcare, environment, or marketing, opening up additional career opportunities. Programs with options for internships or field experience offer students the chance to gain first-hand knowledge of their chosen job and work with mentors in the profession.

Accountant

Accountants process financial data, from developing cash flow reports to billing customers and tracking inventory. Accountants often prepare tax documents and review reports for income forecasts. A bachelor’s degree in a financial field ensures accountants have the skills necessary for the work, but some jobs may prefer an individual with a Certified Public Accounting license, which requires additional courses beyond the bachelor’s degree.

Salary: $50,071

Actuary

Actuaries help insurance companies evaluate risk. Using statistical analysis, they look at the number and cost of accidents, disability, sickness, or mortality. The conclusions they draw help insurance and retirement programs make sure they have adequate funds to cover claims or required payments. Actuaries may be employed by government agencies or in an office-style workplace in the insurance industry.

Salary: $85,284

Financial Analyst

Financial analysts help companies understand their resources and make decisions about future investments. These analysts help identify and evaluate risks, and provide information on companies’ financial health, short-term outlook, and long-term growth potential. They track performance against budgets and offer advice for weathering economic downturns. The analysts work in an office environment, utilizing a variety of financial software.

Salary: $58,929

Compensation and Benefits Manager

Compensation and benefits managers make sure companies remain competitive in the labor market, and that pay and employee benefits meet industry expectations. They often work in the human resources department, enforcing employment laws, regulations, and company policies. These managers collect data on standard compensation packages and speak with employees in groups and individually to better understand issues such as retention or difficulty filling positions.

Salary: $87,321

Market Research Analyst

Market research analysts help companies design marketing messages that resonate with their ideal buyers. They often work in cooperation with marketing strategists to bring new customers to their company. They use a variety of data sources to understand the consumer experience and decision-making process. They also assist with pricing decisions and product distribution. In addition to analytical skills, market research strategists need strong communication skills and an ability to work with other teams.

Salary: $51,116

Economist

Economists find work in many industries, including business and government agencies. They utilize computer software to gather data and present their findings to decision-makers. They often design surveys, ensuring they have a statistically significant sample, or develop data collection methods for various segments of the economy. They often work in office settings and have well developed writing and communication skills to accompany their analytical ability.

Salary: $74,536

Master’s Degree in Economics

Earning an online master’s degree in economics or finance, or even a master of business administration in finance, demonstrates advanced knowledge of economic theories and principles. Most programs take about two years to complete, requiring about 60 credit hours. Some schools offer combined bachelor’s and master’s programs, accelerating that timeline to only five years for both degrees. A master’s degree also serves as a stepping stone to a doctorate in economics. You may face a highly competitive admissions process that considers your prior academic performance along with standardized test scores on the GRE. Applicants also provide a statement of purpose that outlines career goals. If you want to specialize in a particular area of economic research, master’s programs offer that opportunity.

Policy Analyst

Policy analysts provide insight and advice on how policies or regulations may change to impact a region or nation. They may work within government, or for nongovernmental organizations that lobby the government for specific policy changes. Some analysts specialize in a particular sector, such as energy. Analysts working for a nongovernmental agency or lobbying organization also need an in-depth understanding of the political process and strategy. The work often requires travel and advanced communication and presentation skills.

Salary: $56,203

Statistician

Statisticians seek out the most reliable data available to produce actionable advice for their employers. They combine the latest data collection methods with mathematical formulas and specialized software to compile numerical data and develop actionable information for their employers. They often work in office settings.

Salary: $71,714

Postsecondary Teacher (Community College)

Individuals with at least a graduate degree in economics may find work as a full-time or part-time postsecondary teacher, teaching introductory courses to students. These may include general education classes on economics, or specialized courses for business and economics majors. Teachers need expertise and professional experience in their field, plus a desire to mentor students and help them determine the right educational and career path.

Salary: $65,562

Data Analyst

Data analysts dig into large data sets to answer specific questions. They use a variety of data sources, including surveys, to gather information and track data through multiple computer software programs. They may work with a specific company, or freelance for multiple companies. Their finished product often includes charts, graphs, and other visual representations of data.

Salary: $58,209

Senior Economist

Primarily employed by companies in the financial industry, employers prefer hiring individuals with at least a master’s degree and relevant work experience in banking, finance, or economics. Senior economists may develop policy recommendations or develop a plan of action for future risk scenarios. They usually work in an office environment, with little physical activity throughout the day.

Salary: $106,969

Doctoral Degree in Economics

Individuals interested in a career in academia or research-intensive industries may find a doctoral degree in economics necessary for career advancement. You can expect to devote four to six years toward this degree, with the first two years spent studying advanced topics in economic theory, or pursuing coursework that will provide greater specialization. The last two to four years of the program go toward an independent research project. This project serves as the basis for a dissertation demonstrating an advanced understanding of economics. It also accompanies a comprehensive examination. Schools offer many post-graduate education options besides the doctoral program, such as certificates, and different schools provide different specialty tracks to consider.

Quantitative Analyst

Quantitative analysts work closely with other mathematicians in stock trading companies. They develop more efficient strategies for trading stock and create tools to better maintain stock portfolios. They often test new software and trading tools to ensure they perform as expected. They also perform analysis of risk, loan pricing, and defaults. They work in an office environment.

Salary: $83,599

Professor, Postsecondary

Most four-year colleges and universities expect professors to teach and mentor students in their subject while also completing academic research to elevate the school and department’s reputation. Schools may hire professors with only a master’s degree, but often require them to complete a doctorate to maintain employment.

Salary: $87,320

Department Chair (College/University)

The economics department chairperson provides leadership for the professors and implements curriculum standards. They also have financial responsibilities to manage the departmental budget and hire or fire instructional staff. Some schools also require the department chair to teach some classes and even publish research on their field of expertise.

Salary: $83,456

Economics majors may be surprised at how much wages can differ between individuals holding the same degree. When evaluating a median salary for various economics professions, keep in mind the many variables that affect the bottom line. Differences in job location, education, experience, and industry all impact how much employers will pay for a qualified economist to join their ranks. You’ll want to consider the industry you plan to work in after graduation along with the quality and quantity of jobs in the place you hope to live.

Locations

Similar jobs may have different wages when compared across locations. Reasons include the cost of living in various states and cities, plus how competitive employers must be to attract and keep economists in their positions. New York offers top wages for economists, since the city serves as a major trading hub for the financial industry, and residents face a high cost of living. The District of Columbia, with the many government and nonprofit agencies headquartered there, also finds economists commanding a high salary. Economists living in more rural areas, however, may make far less than their urban counterparts.

Industries

The industry in which you choose to work may bring higher earning potential. For example, legal services economists earn an average salary of more than $226,000, compared to a salary of about $129,000 for monetary authorities. Reasons for the wage differences may include higher educational requirements and a requirement for higher specialization.

Industry Average Salary
Legal Services $226,820
Credit Intermediation and Related Services $160,070
Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing $130,260
Management of Companies and Enterprises $129,600
Monetary Authorities-Central Bank $129,320

The BLS projects economics professions will witness 6% growth through 2026, as businesses strive to identify changing economic conditions and compete in a global economy. Students looking for jobs after graduation may check for opportunities in the federal government’s executive branch, which employs the most economists, or banking and regulatory organizations, which have the highest concentrations of economist employees.

You’ll want to develop a strong base resume covering your education, employment history, and relevant internships or fieldwork. Consider how projects you’ve worked on or positions you’ve held demonstrate your ability to gather and interpret data, or show your critical thinking and communication skills. Include your computer and software experience, as well. Include any professional certifications, such as the certified chartered economists or certified business economist designations, you’ve earned. You’ll want to tailor this information to the specific skills mentioned in job postings, but you won’t be starting from scratch with each effort. Always have someone proofread your resume and cover letter before sending it to a prospective employer.

Your search for possible jobs should include multiple search methods. Check with your school’s career services office for any postings they might have, and see if the alumni office hosts any networking opportunities. If you’ve held an internship, check with your job site supervisor for any openings in their organization or through their professional network. Many professional organizations offer access to their job boards, such as EconJobMarket, the International Economic Development Council, and the American Society of Hispanic Economists.

  • American Economic Association: The nonprofit organization formed in 1885 to serve more than 20,000 members working in the field of economics in government, consulting, business, and academic organizations. Members enjoy access to the eight journals published by AEA, and discounted fees to the journals and continuing education programs. The website also hosts a wealth of information about economics and resources for undergraduate and graduate students, educators, and economics professionals.
  • Eastern Economic Association: The Eastern Economic Association, headquartered at Ramapo College, encourages student research and discussion through its annual conference and publication of the Eastern Economic Journal. The association also presents the Eckstein Prize, awarded biennially to the journal article judged to be the best in that period. The prize includes a $1,000 cash award.
  • Berkeley Economic Review: Published by the University of California-Berkeley, the journal offers peer-reviewed research articles authored by undergraduate students from across the country. It’s a student-run journal publishing twice a year online. It launched in spring of 2016 with a collection of undergraduate essays. The most recent edition includes discussion of the economic impact of refugee immigration.
  • National Association of Business Economics: Members of the NABE enjoy access to the association journal and attend conferences at discounted rates. They also enjoy participation in subject-specific rountables, and have access to continuing education certificate programs. The job board offers a resource for recent graduates and members looking to advance their careers, with a salary survey offering insight into market rates for compensation and benefits.
  • National Bureau of Economic Research: This organization formed in 1920 to promote the publication of economic research. It includes 1,400 professors across North America, conducting research into more than 30 areas of economics, with special projects regarding retirement, disability, income and wealth, and science and engineering workforce. In addition to gaining access to the latest research on these topics, NBER helps connect students with fellowship opportunities.
  • EDIRC: The acronym stands for Economics Departments, Institutes and Research Centers in the World and its website offers an index of more than 14,000 institutions in 232 countries. Students can search the list by country or field, or identify relevant economics organizations. It also includes links to economics literature, research papers, and rankings.
  • Economics Research Network: The network offers subscriptions to all electronic journals, providing access to the most recent research from around the world. The research paper series allows schools to distribute the work of their faculty and students while the weekly announcements ensure users know about upcoming conferences, calls for papers, and job openings.
  • Federal Depository Libraries: The U.S. government published thousands of documents and data sources, most available through federal depository libraries. This tool from the U.S. Government Publishing Office provides free, public access to those collections available online, and directors researchers to the proper library to find the information needed.
  • Russell Sage Foundation: Established by Margaret Olivia Sage in 1907, the foundation strives to inform policy discussions in areas of social and living conditions in the United States. This includes urban housing, labor reform, and social work research. The peer-reviewed journal offers open access to empirical research papers while the foundation provides grant and scholarship opportunities.
  • Centre for Economic Policy Research: CEPR provides a clearinghouse of information about economic policy within Europe and around the globe. The nonprofit organization allows affiliated economists to network and collaborate on research projects and publications, with more than 1,000 top economists undertaking research on current issues in Europe. The site includes numerous discussion papers, e-books, and reports.